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Inclusion of immigrants

A total number of 31 145 persons applied for asylum in Norway in 2015, representing a huge increase from the 11 000 who applied for asylum in 2014. This development follows a decade that has witnessed the largest growth of immigrants in modern times. As of January 1, 2015, the number of immigrants living in Norway totaled 669 378. People seeking employment opportunities comprised the largest group driving the growth of immigrants during the decade but immigration for the purpose of family reunion was also an important factor. Refugee immigration has us until recently remained more stable. Asylum seekrs who obtain refugee status have a low return rate and several refugee groups grow over time. Refugees and family reunion immigrants experience – not surprisingly - more difficulties gaining access to employment.
Research on efforts to integrate refugees  has been in focus at Fafo since the mid- 1990s. We have followed the introduction scheme from its inception as a trial project over into its implementation as official policy. In addition, we have carried out evaluations of the policy.
Our research interests are centered on the feasibility and effectivity of different plans, as well as client participation and client experiences. We have also examined the ethical implications of the use of obligatory schemes of qualification and economic sanctions regarding a group that has few alternative sources of sustenance.
We have also completed a number of projects connected to NAV’s (Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration) role in integration efforts, both as partner in the introduction project and as an independent actor for whom immigrants are a steadily more important client group. In the present situation, knowledge about how to easen the influx of refugees into the labour market is more important than ever.


  • Kavli, H. C. & Nilsen, R. (forthcoming 2019). Stepping in or stepping out? Immigrant women at work in Norway. Chapter 12 in Dualization of part-time work – a story of labour market insiders and outsiders. Policy Press.

  • Djuve, A. B. & Kavli, H. C. (2018). Refugee integration policy the Norwegian way – why good ideas fail and bad ideas prevail. Transfer – European Review of Labour and Research.

  • Fløtten, Tone (2017). Den norske modellen i et oppvekstperspektiv. I: Oppvekstrapporten 2017. Barne-, ungdoms- og familiedirektoratet

  • Friberg, J. H. & Midtbøen, A. H. (2017). Ethnicity as skill: immigrant employment hierarchies in Norwegian low-wage labour markets. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.

  • Hagelund, A. & Kavli, H. C. (2017). Integration. In B. Greve (ed.), Handbook of Social Policy Evaluation (pp 383-402). Edward Elgar Publishing.

  • Lunde, H. (2016). Hva skjer når kompetansen er ukjent? Artikkel. Arbeidslivet.no, 03.05.

  • Kavli, H. C. (2016). En liste til besvær. Kommunal rapport, 2. juni. (Commentary on government white paper on immigrant integration)

  • Kavli, H. C. (2016). Skredder uten tråd. Kommunal rapport, 15. august. (Concerning street-level bureaucrats in integration programs)

  • Kavli, H. C. (2016). Tar utdanning – kommer i jobb. Kommunal rapport, 3. november.  (The litmus-test on integration – about immigrant descendants)

  • Birkelund, G. E., Heggebø, K. & Rogstad, J. (2016). Additive or Multiplicative Disadvantage? The Scarring Effects of Unemployment for Ethnic Minorities. European Sociological Review.

  • Friberg, J.H. & Olav Elgvin (2016), Når velferdsstaten bryter tilliten ned: Somaliske innvandrere i møte med NAV. Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning 56 (03):257-284.

  • Djuve, Anne Britt and Hanne C. Kavli (2015): Facilitating User Influence in Activation Programs: When Carers and Clerks meet Pawns and Queens. Journal of Social Policy, Volume 44, Issue 02, April 2015, pp 235-254

  • Djuve, Anne Britt, Anniken Hagelund og Hanne Kavli (2012): Innvandrede kvinner i kvalifisering. Arbeidslinja når helsa skranter, utdanningen er lav og barna mange. Kapittel 5 i Steinar Stjernø og Einar Øverbye (red.) Arbeidslinja. Arbeidsmotivasjon og velferdsstaten. Universitetsforlaget. 2012

  • Hagelund, Anniken og Hanne C. Kavli (2011): If work is out of sight. Activation and citizenship for new refugees. In: Journal of European Social Policy. Volume 19, number 3, Sage publications. 2011

  • Djuve, A. B. (2011). Introduksjonsordningen for nyankomne innvandrere: Et integreringspolitisk paradigmeskifte? Dr.avhandling. Universitetet i Oslo.
  • Jensen, R. S. & Orupabo, J. (2010). Evaluering av forsøket med moderat kvotering av innvandrere. ISF-rapport 2010:5.
  • Djuve, A. B. & Gulløy, E. (2010). Veileder i brukerundersøkelser når innvandrere er brukere. Oslo: IMDi.
  • Orupabo, J., Jensen, R. S. & Storvik, Aa. ( 2009). Midtveisevaluering av moderat kvotering av innvandrere med ikke-vestlig bakgrunn. ISF-rapport 003.
  • Kavli, Hanne C (2008): Introduksjon av nyankomne flyktninger og innvandrere i Danmark, Sverige og Norge, Søkelys på arbeidslivet. Nummer 1. 2008

  • Djuve, A. B. (2008). Nordiske erfaringer med arbeidsmarkedstiltak for innvandrere. Søkelys på arbeidslivet, 1.

  • Djuve, A.B. og H.C. Kavli (2007), Integrering i Danmark, Sverige og Norge: Felles utfordringer – like løsninger? Tema Nord 2007:575. Nordisk Ministerråd
  • Djuve, Anne Britt and Hanne C. Kavli (2007): Integreringspolitikk i endring. Kap 8 i Dølvik et.al: Hamskifte. Den norske modellen i endring. Gyldendal Akademisk.

  • Djuve, Anne Britt og Kavli, Hanne C. (2007): Velferdsstatens skreddere. I Tidsskrift for Velferdsforskning.

  • Djuve, A. B. & Kavli, H. C. (2007). Felles utfordringer – like løsninger? Integrering i Danmark, Sverige og Norge. TemaNord.
  • Djuve, A. B. (2006). Virker integreringsarbeidet? I A. B. Djuve, H. C. Kavli & M. Lund (red.), Integreringskart 2006. På vei mot en kunnskapsstatus ved etableringen av Integrerings- og mangfoldsdirektoratet. IMDi-rapport nr 1/06.
  • Djuve, A. B. (2006). Integrering i randsonen. Ikke-vestlige innvandrere i norsk arbeidsliv. I: Arbeid, velferd og samfunn. Arbeids- og velferdsdirektoratet.
  • Djuve, A. B. (2005). Hvem inkluderer innvandrere? I H. Torp (red.), Nytt arbeidsliv. Medvirkning, inkludering og belønning. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.
  • Djuve, A. B. (2003). Introduksjonsordning for nyankomne innvandrere – integrering eller overgrep? Søkelys på arbeidsmarkedet, 1.

  • Djuve, A. B., Kavli, H. C. & Østberg, T. (2001, 19. desember). Frivillig integrering? Dagbladet
  • Djuve, A. B. & Rogstad, J. (1999). The black gold in Norway – immigrants and the labour market in the future. Paper for the 4th European conference of Sociology, Amsterdam 18-21 aug.
  • Djuve, A. B. (1997). Ung, farget og arbeidsledig? Arbeidsnotat 13/97. Institutt for medievitenskap, Universitetet i Bergen.



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