Global studies
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Peacebuilding and stabilisation

Fafo's research programme on peace and stabilization focuses on the dynamics and consequences of evolving doctrine and practice in peacekeeping, peacebuilding, and stabilization operations.

Much of our research includes people that fall outside of the traditional peacekeeping and peacebuilding literature, such as:

– male and female ex-combatants

– informal and service workers operating in the peacekeeping economy

– street children

– local staff of UN missions and NGOs

– local business and politico-military elites

– refugees and internally displaced people

– sex workers.

Thus, while focusing on key issues and themes in peacekeeping, peacebuilding, and stabilization environments – such as the political economy of peacekeeping; the interaction between locals and internationals in peacekeeping/ building sites; disarmament, demobilization and reintegration; corruption and conflict minerals; sexual exploitation and abuse committed by peacekeepers; and gender – we retain an emphasis on those that are both marginalized and often considered analytically marginal.

In so doing, we hope to provide channels for other voices and experiences to be heard, while bringing new insights to bear on peacekeeping and peacebuilding research.

Christophersen, M. & Stave, S. E. (2018). Advancing Sustainable Development between Conflict and Peace in Myanmar. IPI. April 4.

Mona Christophersen and Svein Erik Stave

Roesch, J. L. & Christophersen, M. (2017). Does Peace Always Produce Development? Guatemala Offers Some Clues. IPI Global Observatory.

Jimena Leiva Roesch and Mona Christophersen

Jennings, K.M. (forthcoming) “Blue Helmet Havens: Peacekeeping as Bypassing in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo”, International Peacekeeping.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K.M. and M. Bøås (2015) “Transactions and Interactions: Everyday Life in the Peacekeeping Economy”, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 281-295.

Jennings, K.M. (2015) “Life in a ‘Peace-kept’ City: Encounters with the Peacekeeping Economy”, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 296-315.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K.M. (2014) "Service, sex and security: Gendered peacekeeping economies in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo", Security Dialogue, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1-18.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K.M. (2010) "Unintended Consequences of Intimacy: Political Economies of Peacekeeping and Sex Tourism", International Peacekeeping, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 229-243.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K.M. (2009) "The political economy of DDR in Liberia: a gendered critique", Conflict, Security & Development, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 475-494.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K.M. and A. Kaspersen (2008), "Conclusion: Integration Going Forward", International Peacekeeping, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 582-587.

Kathleen M. Jennings and Anja Kaspersen

Jennings, K.M. and A. Kaspersen (2008), "Introduction: Integration Revisited", International Peacekeeping, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 443-452.

Kathleen M. Jennings and Anja Kaspersen

Bøås, M. and A. Hatløy (2008), "‘Getting in, getting out’: militia membership and prospects for re-integration in post-war Liberia", Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 46, no. 1, pp.33-55.

Morten Bøås and Anne Hatløy

Jennings, K.M. (2007) "The Struggle to Satisfy: DDR Through the Eyes of Ex-Combatants in Liberia", International Peacekeeping, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 1-15.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Bøås, M. and K.M. Jennings (2007) "'Failed States' and 'State Failure': Threats or Opportunities?", Globalizations, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 475-485.

Morten Bøås and Kathleen M. Jennings

Bøås M and Hatløy A (2006). Poor, terrorised and internally displaced: the humanitarian situation in Northern Uganda. Humanitarian Exchange, 36: 21-22.

Bøås M and Hatløy A

Bøås, M. and K.M. Jennings (2005) "Insecurity and Development: The rhetoric of the 'failed' state", European Journal for Development Research, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 385-395.

Morten Bøås and Kathleen M. Jennings

Other publications

Christophersen, M. & Stave, S. E. (2018). Advancing Sustainable Development between Conflict and Peace in Myanmar. IPI. April 4.

Mona Christophersen and Svein Erik Stave

Jennings, K. M. (2017). The Immunity Dilemma: Peacekeepers’ Crimes and the UN’s Response. Article at E-IR.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Roesch, J. L. & Christophersen, M. (2017). Does Peace Always Produce Development? Guatemala Offers Some Clues. IPI Global Observatory.

Jimena Leiva Roesch and Mona Christophersen

Jennings, K.M. (forthcoming) “Blue Helmet Havens: Peacekeeping as Bypassing in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo”, International Peacekeeping.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K.M. and M. Bøås (2015) “Transactions and Interactions: Everyday Life in the Peacekeeping Economy”, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 281-295.

Jennings, K.M. (2015) “Life in a ‘Peace-kept’ City: Encounters with the Peacekeeping Economy”, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 296-315.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K.M. (2014) "Service, sex and security: Gendered peacekeeping economies in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo", Security Dialogue, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1-18.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K.M. (2010) "Unintended Consequences of Intimacy: Political Economies of Peacekeeping and Sex Tourism", International Peacekeeping, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 229-243.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K.M. (2009) "The political economy of DDR in Liberia: a gendered critique", Conflict, Security & Development, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 475-494.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K.M. and A. Kaspersen (2008), "Conclusion: Integration Going Forward", International Peacekeeping, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 582-587.

Kathleen M. Jennings and Anja Kaspersen

Jennings, K.M. and A. Kaspersen (2008), "Introduction: Integration Revisited", International Peacekeeping, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 443-452.

Kathleen M. Jennings and Anja Kaspersen

Bøås, M. and A. Hatløy (2008), "‘Getting in, getting out’: militia membership and prospects for re-integration in post-war Liberia", Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 46, no. 1, pp.33-55.

Morten Bøås and Anne Hatløy

Jennings, K.M. (2007) "The Struggle to Satisfy: DDR Through the Eyes of Ex-Combatants in Liberia", International Peacekeeping, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 1-15.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Bøås, M. and K.M. Jennings (2007) "'Failed States' and 'State Failure': Threats or Opportunities?", Globalizations, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 475-485.

Morten Bøås and Kathleen M. Jennings

Bøås M and Hatløy A (2006). Poor, terrorised and internally displaced: the humanitarian situation in Northern Uganda. Humanitarian Exchange, 36: 21-22.

Bøås M and Hatløy A

Bøås, M. and K.M. Jennings (2005) "Insecurity and Development: The rhetoric of the 'failed' state", European Journal for Development Research, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 385-395.

Morten Bøås and Kathleen M. Jennings

Christophersen, M. & Stave, S. E. (2018). Advancing Sustainable Development between Conflict and Peace in Myanmar. IPI. April 4.

Mona Christophersen and Svein Erik Stave

Roesch, J. L. & Christophersen, M. (2017). Does Peace Always Produce Development? Guatemala Offers Some Clues. IPI Global Observatory.

Jimena Leiva Roesch and Mona Christophersen

Jennings, K.M. (forthcoming) “Blue Helmet Havens: Peacekeeping as Bypassing in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo”, International Peacekeeping.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K.M. and M. Bøås (2015) “Transactions and Interactions: Everyday Life in the Peacekeeping Economy”, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 281-295.

Jennings, K.M. (2015) “Life in a ‘Peace-kept’ City: Encounters with the Peacekeeping Economy”, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 296-315.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K.M. (2014) "Service, sex and security: Gendered peacekeeping economies in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo", Security Dialogue, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1-18.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K.M. (2010) "Unintended Consequences of Intimacy: Political Economies of Peacekeeping and Sex Tourism", International Peacekeeping, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 229-243.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K.M. (2009) "The political economy of DDR in Liberia: a gendered critique", Conflict, Security & Development, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 475-494.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K.M. and A. Kaspersen (2008), "Conclusion: Integration Going Forward", International Peacekeeping, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 582-587.

Kathleen M. Jennings and Anja Kaspersen

Jennings, K.M. and A. Kaspersen (2008), "Introduction: Integration Revisited", International Peacekeeping, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 443-452.

Kathleen M. Jennings and Anja Kaspersen

Bøås, M. and A. Hatløy (2008), "‘Getting in, getting out’: militia membership and prospects for re-integration in post-war Liberia", Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 46, no. 1, pp.33-55.

Morten Bøås and Anne Hatløy

Jennings, K.M. (2007) "The Struggle to Satisfy: DDR Through the Eyes of Ex-Combatants in Liberia", International Peacekeeping, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 1-15.

Kathleen M. Jennings

Bøås, M. and K.M. Jennings (2007) "'Failed States' and 'State Failure': Threats or Opportunities?", Globalizations, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 475-485.

Morten Bøås and Kathleen M. Jennings

Bøås M and Hatløy A (2006). Poor, terrorised and internally displaced: the humanitarian situation in Northern Uganda. Humanitarian Exchange, 36: 21-22.

Bøås M and Hatløy A

Bøås, M. and K.M. Jennings (2005) "Insecurity and Development: The rhetoric of the 'failed' state", European Journal for Development Research, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 385-395.

Morten Bøås and Kathleen M. Jennings

Jennings, K. M. (2017). The Immunity Dilemma: Peacekeepers’ Crimes and the UN’s Response. Article at E-IR.

Kathleen M. Jennings
Jennings, K.M. (2015) “United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL)”, in Joachim A. Koops, Norrie MacQueen, Thierry Tardy and Paul D. Williams (eds) Oxford Handbook of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 454-461.
Kathleen M. Jennings
Jennings, K.M. (2015) “United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)” , in Joachim A. Koops, Norrie MacQueen, Thierry Tardy and Paul D. Williams (eds) Oxford Handbook of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 694-706.
Kathleen M. Jennings
Bøås, M. and K.M. Jennings (2012) "Rebellion and warlordism: the spectre of neopatrimonialism", in Daniel Bach and Mamoudou Gazibo (eds) Neopatrimonialism in Africa and Beyond, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 124-131.
Morten Bøås and Kathleen M. Jennings
Bøås, M. and K.M. Jennings (2008) "War in the Great Lakes Region and Ugandan Conflict Zones: Micro-regionalisms and Meta-narratives", in Fredrik Söderbaum and Ian Taylor (eds) Afro-Regions: The Dynamics of Cross-border Micro-regionalisms in Africa, Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
Morten Bøås and Kathleen M. Jennings
Jennings, K.M. (2008) "Securitizing the Economy of Reintegration in Liberia", in Michael Pugh, Neil Cooper and Mandy Turner (eds), Whose Peace? Critical Perspectives on the Political Economy of Peacebuilding, Basingstoke: Palgrave, pp.157-170.
Kathleen M. Jennings
Jennings, K.M. (2011) Women's participation in UN peacekeeping operations: agents of change or stranded symbols?, NOREF Report, Oslo: NOREF.
Bjørkhaug, I., K.M. Jennings and M. Bøås (2010) Mapping and assessment of national, bilateral and multilateral actors' support to work against sexual based violence in the Great Lakes region in Africa, NORAD Report 12/2010, Oslo: Norad.
Kathleen M. Jennings and Morten Bøås

Jennings, K.M. and V. Nikolic-Ristanovic (2009) UN peacekeeping economies and local sex industries: connections and implications, MicroCon Working Paper 17.

Kathleen M. Jennings
Jennings, K.M. (2009) Gender and Post-Conflict Statebuilding: A Synthesis, New York: Program on States and Security, Graduate Center at CUNY.
Kathleen M. Jennings
Bjørkhaug I, Bøås M, Hatløy A and Jennings KM (2007) Returning to Uncertainty? Addressing Vulnerabilities in Northern Uganda, Kampala: UNDP/Office of the Prime Minister
Bjørkhaug I, Bøås M, Hatløy A and Jennings K
Bøås M and Hatløy A (2005) Northern Uganda IDP Profiling. Volume 1: Northern Uganda IDP Study. Kampala: UNDP/Office of the Prime Minister.
Bøås M and Hatløy A
Atallah A, Bøås M, El Dada H, Hatløy A and Zhang H (2005) Northern Uganda IDP Profiling. Volume 2: Tabulation report. Kampala: UNDP/Office of the Prime Minister. (CD)
Atallah A, Bøås M, El Dada H, Hatløy A, Zhang H