A total number of 31 145 persons applied for asylum in Norway in 2015, representing a huge increase from the 11 000 who applied for asylum in 2014. This development follows a decade that has witnessed the largest growth of immigrants in modern times.
As of January 1, 2015, the number of immigrants living in Norway totalled 669 378. People seeking employment opportunities comprised the largest group driving the growth of immigrants during the decade but immigration for the purpose of the family reunion was also an important factor. Refugee immigration has until recently remained more stable. Asylum seekers who obtain refugee status have a low return rate and several refugee groups grow over time. Refugees and family reunion immigrants experience – not surprisingly - more difficulties gaining access to employment.
Research on efforts to integrate refugees has been in focus at Fafo since the mid- 1990s. We have followed the introduction scheme from its inception as a trial project over into its implementation as official policy. In addition, we have carried out evaluations of the policy.
Our research interests are centred on the feasibility and effectiveness of different plans, as well as client participation and client experiences. We have also examined the ethical implications of the use of obligatory schemes of qualification and economic sanctions regarding a group that has few alternative sources of sustenance.
We have also completed a number of projects connected to NAV’s (Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration) role in integration efforts, both as a partner in the introduction project and as an independent actor for whom immigrants are a steadily more important client group. In the present situation, knowledge about how to ease the influx of refugees into the labour market is more important than ever.
Universalism and equality of services are important principles for the Norwegian welfare state. A substantial part of research on the welfare state’s services for immigrants, therefore, revolves around the ordinary range of services that is offered to the population at large. While we already have mentioned NAV, all other service areas employ ‘mainstreaming’ as an underlying principle: services should be appropriate to both immigrants and citizens such that both groups receive an equal service provision. Equality is however not a simple concept that can easily be implemented, and our research points out that realization of political goals is often difficult for first-line service providers.
‘Mainstreaming’ implies that the area of research on integration branches out into the whole area of research on social services. This area of research has been an important theme in Fafo’s research on daycare, child protection and education.
Nerina Weiss & Nina GrenMission Impossible?
Jon Horgen FribergDoes selective acculturation work?
Anne Britt Djuve & Hanne C. KavliRefugee integration policy the Norwegian way – why good ideas fail and bad ideas prevail. , 2018/2019
Jon Horgen Friberg og Arnfinn H. MidtbøenInnvandrernes etterkommere: Teoretiske og komparative perspektiver , 2017
Jon H. Friberg & Arnfinn H. MidtbøenEthnicity as skill: immigrant employment hierarchies in Norwegian low-wage labour markets , 2017
Gunn Elisabeth Birkelund, Kristian Heggebø and Jon RogstadAdditive or Multiplicative Disadvantage?
Friberg, J.H. & Olav ElgvinNår velferdsstaten bryter tilliten ned: Somaliske innvandrere i møte med NAV Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning , 2016
Anne Britt Djuve og Hanne C. KavliFacilitating User Influence in Activation Programs. When Carers and Clerks meet Pawns and Queens. Journal of Social Policy , 2015
Anne Britt Djuve, Anniken Hagelund og Hanne KavliInnvandrede kvinner i kvalifisering
Anniken Hagelund og Hanne C. KavliIf work is out of sight. Activation and citizenship for new refugees Journal of European Social Policy , 2011
Hanne C. KavliIntroduksjon av nyankomne flyktninger og innvandrere i Danmark, Sverige og Norge Søkelys på arbeidslivet , 2008
Anne Britt DjuveNordiske erfaringer med arbeidsmarkedstiltak for innvandrere Søkelys på arbeidslivet , 2008
Anne Britt DjuveIntroduksjonsordningen for nyankomne innvandrere: Et integreringspolitisk paradigmeskifte? , 2011
Anne Britt Djuve og Elisabeth GulløyVeileder i brukerundersøkelser når innvandrere er brukere , 2010
Ragnhild Steen Jensen og Julia OrupaboEvaluering av forsøket med moderat kvotering av innvandrere , 2010
Julia Orupabo, Ragnhild Steen Jensen og Aagoth StorvikMidtveisevaluering av moderat kvotering av innvandrere med ikke-vestlig bakgrunn , 2009
Anne Britt Djuve og Hanne KavliIntegrering i Danmark, Sverige og Norge: Felles utfordringer – like løsninger? , 2007
Anne Britt Djuve og Hanne C. KavliFelles utfordringer – like løsninger?